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I veckan kom resultaten för CARMELINA, se bifogad Press Release. CARMELINA är den kardiovaskulära utfallsstudien för Trajenta® (linagliptin).
 
Trajenta uppnådde det primära utfallsmåttet, non-inferiority för 3P-MACE (kardiovaskulär död, icke-fatal hjärtinfarkt och icke-fatal stroke). Trajenta är därav, liksom de övriga DPP-4-hämmarna, kardiovaskulär säkert.
 
I CARMELINA jämfördes Trajenta mot placebo, som tillägg till standardbehandling, hos typ 2-diabetes patienter med hög kardiovaskulär risk. 74 procent av patienterna hade även ett eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 eller makroalbuminuri (UACR >300 mg/g).
 
Studien kommer presenteras i sin helhet, inklusive njurutfallsmått, under EASD i Berlin den 4 oktober.
 
Press release
 
Boehringer Ingelheim and Lilly announce Trajenta®’s CARMELINA® cardiovascular outcome trial met its primary endpoint
* Trajenta® demonstrates long-term cardiovascular safety in adults with type 2 diabetes
 
 CARMELINA®1 (CArdiovascular safety and Renal Microvascular outcomE with LINAgliptin in patients with type 2 diabetes at high vascular risk) met its primary endpoint, defined as time to first occurrence of cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction or non-fatal stroke (3-point MACE), with Trajenta® (linagliptin) demonstrating similar cardiovascular safety compared to placebo. Boehringer Ingelheim and Eli Lilly and Company (NYSE: LLY) announced today positive top-line results, which evaluated the impact of treatment with linagliptin vs. placebo on cardiovascular safety on top of standard of care.
 
The study included 6,979 adults with type 2 diabetes and high cardiovascular risk.1 The majority of patients also had kidney disease, an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The overall safety profile of linagliptin in CARMELINA®, including adults with kidney disease, was consistent with previous data and no new safety signal was observed.
 
People who have diabetes are at an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease.2,3 Despite recent advancements in treatment options, cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death for people living with diabetes,4 and about two thirds of chronic kidney disease cases are attributable to metabolic conditions, such as diabetes, obesity and hypertension.5,6,7
 
“CARMELINA® reinforces the long-term clinical safety profile of linagliptin in adults with type 2 diabetes, even in those most vulnerable for vascular complications,” said Waheed Jamal, MD, Corporate Vice President and Head of Cardiometabolic Medicine, Boehringer Ingelheim. “The trial adds important new evidence for patients at high risk for heart and kidney disease, a population that has previously been underrepresented in other cardiovascular outcome trials in diabetes.”
 
“Linagliptin demonstrated cardiovascular safety in adults with type 2 diabetes and high vascular risk, with no need for dose adjustments regardless of kidney function,” added Jeff Emmick, MD, PhD, Vice President, Product Development, Lilly Diabetes. “CARMELINA® provides confidence in linagliptin as an effective and well-tolerated treatment, with a simple dosing regimen, for adults with type 2 diabetes.”
 
The full results of CARMELINA® will be presented on 4 October at the 54th European Association for the Study of Diabetes Annual Meeting in Berlin, Germany.
 
About the Study
CARMELINA® (CArdiovascular safety and Renal Microvascular outcomE with LINAgliptin in patients with type 2 diabetes at high vascular risk) is a multi-national, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial that involved 6,979 adults with type 2 diabetes from 27 countries at more than 600 sites observed for a median duration of 2.2 years.1 The study was designed to assess the effect of Trajenta® (linagliptin) (5mg once daily) compared to placebo (both added to standard of care) on cardiovascular outcome in adults with type 2 diabetes and high cardiovascular risk, the majority of whom also had kidney disease. This population reflects patients that doctors see in their daily practice. CARMELINA® was led by an academic trial steering committee and the Boehringer Ingelheim and Eli Lilly and Company Diabetes Alliance. Compared to other recently reported outcome trials of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors in type 2 diabetes, CARMELINA® included the highest number of patients with impaired kidney function.* Standard of care included both glucose lowering agents and cardiovascular drugs (including antihypertensive and lipid lowering agents).'
 
About Trajenta® (linagliptin)
Trajenta® is a one dose, once daily DPP-4-inihibitor that provides significant efficacy in the reduction of blood sugar levels for adults with type 2 diabetes. It can be prescribed for people with type 2 diabetes regardless of age, disease duration, ethnicity, body mass index (BMI), liver and kidney function.8 Trajenta® has the lowest kidney excretion rate of all DPP-4 inhibitors.8,9,10,11,12 It is prescribed at the same dose and has demonstrated proven efficacy regardless of kidney function,8,13,14 making it simple to administer and use.
 
About cardiovascular outcome trials
Cardiovascular outcome trials are highly relevant, as cardiovascular disease is a major complication and the leading cause of death in type 2 diabetes. Worldwide, most people with type 2 diabetes die of a cardiovascular event.15 In 2015, Boehringer Ingelheim and Eli Lilly and Company announced results from the landmark cardiovascular outcome trial EMPA-REG OUTCOME® with the SGLT2 inhibitor empagliflozin, which demonstrated a 38% relative risk reduction in cardiovascular death in adults with type 2 diabetes and established cardiovascular disease.†16,17
 
CARMELINA® is one of two cardiovascular outcome trials with the DPP-4 inhibitor linagliptin. CAROLINA®,18 will be the first DPP-4 inhibitor cardiovascular outcome trial to compare commonly used second line treatments - linagliptin and the sulphonylurea glimepiride. This trial includes adults with type 2 diabetes at increased cardiovascular risk, however, the majority did not yet have heart and kidney disease. The study is expected to complete in 2018. CARMELINA® and CAROLINA® will provide the most comprehensive clinical database on the long-term safety profile of a DPP-4-inhibitor in a broad range of adults with type 2 diabetes.
 
REFERENCES 1 CARMELINA®: Cardiovascular and renal microvascular outcome study with linagliptin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus at high vascular risk. Available at: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01897532?term=NCT01897532&rank=1. Accessed: July 2018 2 National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive Kidney Diseases. Diabetic Kidney Disease. (https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/diabetes/overview/preventing-problems/diabetic-kidney-disease). Accessed: July 2018 3 World Heart Federation. Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors. (https://www.world-heart-federation.org/resources/risk-factors/). Accessed: July 2018 4 National Diabetes Education Program. Snapshot of Diabetes. (http://www.nkfm.org/sites/default/files/documents/ndep_diabetes_snapshot.pdf). Accessed: July 2018 5 Levin A, et al. Global kidney health 2017 and beyond: a roadmap for closing gaps in care, research, and policy. Lancet 2017;390:1888-917 6 United States Renal Data System, USRDS 2012 Annual data report: Atlas of chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease in the United States, National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Bethesda, MD, 2012. Available at: http://www.usrds.org/reference.htm. Accessed: July 2018 7 Liyanage T, et al. Worldwide access to treatment for end-stage kidney disease: a systematic review. Lancet 2015; 385(9981):1975-82 8 Trajenta® (linagliptin) tablets. EMA Summary of Product Characteristics. Updated August 2017. Available at: http://www.ema.europa.eu/docs/en_GB/document_library/EPAR_-_Product_Information/human/002110/WC500115745.pdf. Accessed: July 2018 9 Galvus® (vildagliptin) tablets. EMA Summary of Product Characteristics. Updated June 2017. Available at: http://www.ema.europa.eu/docs/en_GB/document_library/EPAR_-_Product_Information/human/000771/WC500020327.pdf. Accessed: July 2018 10 Januvia® (sitagliptin) tablets. EMA Summary of Product Characteristics. Updated August 2017. Available at: http://www.ema.europa.eu/docs/en_GB/document_library/EPAR_-_Product_Information/human/000722/WC500039054.pdf. Accessed: July 2018 11 Vipidia® (alogliptin) tablets. EMA Summary of Product Characteristics. Updated January 2015. Available at: http://www.ema.europa.eu/docs/en_GB/document_library/EPAR_-_Product_Information/human/002182/WC500152271.pdf. Accessed: June 2018 12 Onglyza® (saxagliptin) tablets. EMA Summary of Product Characteristics. Updated July 2016. Available at: http://www.ema.europa.eu/docs/en_GB/document_library/EPAR_-_Product_Information/human/001039/WC500044316.pdf. Accessed: June 2018 13 Groop P, et al. Linagliptin treatment in subjects with type 2 diabetes with and without mild-to-moderate renal impairment. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2014;16(8):560-68 14 McGill J, et al. Long-term efficacy and safety of linagliptin in patients with type 2 diabetes and severe renal impairment: a 1-year,
randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Diabetes Care. 2013;36:237-244 15 Morrish NJ, et al. The WHO Multinational Study Group. Mortality and causes of death in the WHO multinational study of vascular disease in diabetes. Diabetologia. 2001;44:S14-S21 16 Jardiance® (Full Prescribing Information). U.S.; Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc; 2017 17 Zinman B, et al. EMPA-REG OUTCOME® Investigators. Empagliflozin, cardiovascular outcomes, and mortality in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2015;373(22):2117-2128 18 CAROLINA®: Cardiovascular safety and renal microvascular outcome with linagliptin in patients with type 2 diabetes at high vascular risk. Available at: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01243424?term=NCT01243424&rank=1. Accessed: July 2018
 
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